Statutes and Laws Governing Wildlife and Pesticides
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U.S. Code

Title

Intent

Fine/Penalty

16 U.S.C. 688-668CEagle Protection  Act 1940Prohibits import, export, taking of bald and golden eagles.Civil: $5,000.
Criminal: $100,000/one year, $250,000/two years (second offense)
16 U.S.C. 703-712Migratory Bird  Treaty Act 1918Prohibits hunting, taking, possession, etc., of migratory birds.Criminal: $25,000/six months, $250,000/two years (felony sale)
16 U.S.C. 718Migratory Bird hunting, and Conservation Stamp  Act 1934Requires hunting stamps prior to taking migratory waterfowl.Criminal: $25.000/six months
18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378Lacey Act 1981Ensures humane treatment for wildlife shipped to U.S. Controls smuggling/trade in illegally taken fish and wildlife.Civil: $10,000
Criminal: $100,000/one year $250,000/five years (felony sale/purchase)
16 U.S.C. 1361-1407Marine Mammal Protection  Act 1972Moratorium on taking and importation of marine mammals. Defines federal responsibility for conservation of  marine mammals.Civil: $10,000 Ciminal: $100,000/one year
16 U.S.C. 742j-1The Airborne Hunting Act  1956Prohibits taking wildlife from aircraft except when protecting wildlife, livestock, or human health.Criminal: $100,000/one year. Allows forfeiture of guns, aircraft, and equipment.
16 U.S.C. 668dd-668eeNational Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act  1966Guidelines and directives for mangement of wildlife refuges and areas for protection of fish, wildlife, etc.Criminal: $100,000/one year
16 U.S.C. 1521-1453Endangered Species Act  1973Prohibits importation, taking, etc., of fish, wildlife, and plants that are listed as threatened and endangered. Also implements the convention or international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora  (CITES).Civil: $25,000 Criminal: $100,000/one year
(knowing violation)
16 U.S.C. 721-731Upper Mississippi RefugeGuidelines for the upper Mississippi  National Wildlife and Fish Refuge.Criminal: $25,000/six months. Forfeiture of fish, wildlife, guns, fishing equipment, and boats used contrary to the statute.
16 U.S.C. 4901 et seq.Wild Bird Conservation  Act 1992Moratorium on all imports of exotic birds except for scientific research, breeding, personally owned pets.Civil: $25,000
Criminal: 2 years
7 ;U.S.C. 121-136yFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide  Act 1947*Registration of pesticides; risk/benefit standard; data requirements.Civil: $5,000 (companies and commercial), $1,000 (farmer). Criminal: $50,000/one year (companies), $25,000/one year (applicator), $1,000/30 days (farmer).
33 U.S.C. 2401-2410Organotin Antifouling Paint Control Act 1988Prohibits use of antifouling paints on ships <25 meters; toxicity to shellfish.Civil: $5,000
Criminal: $25,000/one year.
16 U.S.C. 4701-4751Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control  Act 1990Research into environmental effects of ballast; zebra mussel demonstration project; prevention and control of aquatic nuisance species.Civil: $25,000/day
Criminal: $250,000 (indiv.) or 2 x value of the loss or damage $500,000 (corp.) or 2 x the value of the loss or pecuniary gain/0-25 years

*The first legislation regulating pesticide use was the Insecticide Act of 1910.

Authored by Fred Whitford, et al.

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